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Genomics and Biology. Biotechnology and genomics.
BIOINFOMATICS


Bioinformatics and computational biology involve the use of techniques and methods including applied mathematics, informatics, statistics, computer science, artificial intelligence, chemistry and biochemistry to solve biological problems. Major research efforts being carried out in the arena include sequence alignment, gene finding, genetic engineering, DNA finger printing, genome assembly, protein structure alignment, protein structure prediction, prediction of gene expression and protein-protein interactions, and the modeling of evolution. This is the sunrise and multi billion dollar industry and millions of research hours are being spent in the field in developed countries to explore better and more effective results based on data.

The terms bioinformatics and computational biology are often used interchangeably. However bioinformatics more properly refers to the creation and advancement of algorithms, computational and statistical techniques, and theory to solve formal and practical problems posed by or inspired from the management and analysis of biological data. Computational biology, on the other hand, refers to hypothesis-driven investigation of a specific biological problem using computers, carried out with experimental and simulated data, with the primary goal of discovery and the advancement of biological knowledge.

In the last few decades, advances in molecular biology and the equipment available for research in this field have allowed the increasingly rapid sequencing of large portions of the genes. This deluge of information has necessitated the careful storage, organization and indexing of sequence information. Information science has been applied to biology to produce the field called Bioinformatics.

The simplest tasks used in bioinformatics concern the creation and maintenance of databases of biological information. Nucleic acid sequences (and the protein sequences derived from them) comprise the majority of such databases. While the storage and or organization of millions of nucleotides is far from trivial, designing a database and developing an interface whereby researchers can both access existing information and submit new entries is only the beginning. These are some of the concepts associated with the field of bioinformatics:

Finding the genes in the DNA sequences of various organisms.
Developing methods to predict the structure and/or function of newly discovered proteins and structural RNA sequences.
Clustering protein sequences into families of related sequences and the development of protein models.
Aligning similar proteins and generating phylogenetic trees to examine evolutionary relationships.
 

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